How Much Does A Texas Driver’S License Cost? (Solved)

The cost of a Texas driver license varies based on your age. In general, you will need to pay $25 for a driver license. If you are below the age of 18 when applying for a license, you will need to pay a fee of $16. If you are 84 years old or older, a driver license will cost $9.

How much does a Texas ID cost?

  • The DMV ID cost depends on the type of applicant and the type of ID card received. Applicants age 59 and younger will pay a $16 fee for a standard ID card or a limited-term ID. Applicants for a standard ID card age 60 and older will pay $6.

How do I pay for my Texas drivers license?

Cash, credit card, check, and money order are all acceptable forms of payment for license renewal.

What do I need to bring to the DMV to get my license in Texas?

How to Apply for a Texas Driver License

  1. U.S. Citizenship or, if you are not a U.S. Citizen, evidence of lawful presence.
  2. Texas Residency.
  3. Identity, and.
  4. Social Security Number.
  5. Evidence of Texas Vehicle Registration* for each vehicle you own. Registration must be current.
  6. Proof of Insurance* for each vehicle you own.

How do I get a driver’s license in Texas 2020?

How to Apply for Your Provisional License

  1. Hold a learner license for at least 6 months.
  2. Complete your driver education course.
  3. Finish impact Texas teen drivers (ITTD) Course.
  4. Schedule your driving test.
  5. Collect documentation for your test.
  6. Bring a parent or guardian.
  7. Pay the fee of $ 17.00.
  8. Take your driving test.

Can I get my license without taking the road test in Texas?

Yes. You must apply for a driver license before scheduling a driving exam. We also recommend you visit our webpage on How to apply for a Texas Driver License for more information regarding the steps you will need to take in order to complete the process.

How long is a Texas drivers license good for?

ID cards must be renewed every 6 years. Driver licenses must be renewed every 8 years for anyone between the ages 18 and 84.

How much is the road test in Texas?

If you are older than 25 and are applying for a Texas driver’s license for the first time, you are not required to have completed driver education, however, it is highly recommended. The DPS-approved Road Test fee is $75.00.

What is the normal driver’s license class in Texas?

Unless you’re trying to drive anything bigger than a basic SUV or with less than two wheels, your regular ol ‘ Class C license will be enough. This is what you apply for after you take Drivers Ed and pass your written test.

What does class C mean on Texas drivers license?

Class C. Authorizes an individual to drive: Single vehicle or combination of vehicles that are not included in Class A or B. Single vehicle with a GVWR of less than 26,001 pounds towing a farm trailer with a GVWR that does not exceed 20,000 pounds. Designed to transport 23 or less passengers including the driver.

What are 3 proofs of residency?

Proof of Address

  • Valid Driver’s License.
  • Property Tax Receipt.
  • Posted Mail with name of applicant.
  • Utility Bill.
  • Lease Agreement or mortgage statement.
  • Insurance Card.
  • Voter Registration Card.
  • College Enrollment Papers.

What’s on the Texas driving road test?

According to the Texas Drivers Handbook, the evaluators test drivers on four basic skills: control, observation, positioning, and signaling. The driving practice you did on your learner’s permit should be enough to give you the skills to be a competent driver and to pass the test.

How long does it take to get your license in Texas?

It usually takes two to three weeks from the date of your transaction for a driver license or identification card to be mailed to you.

Can I take the written driving test online in Texas?

Taking the written driving test online in Texas is the most convenient way to take the exam. Virtual Drive offers an approved six hour course that includes the Texas Driving Test Online, as the final test. The six hours of training includes everything you will need to know, to pass the written Texas driving test.

Can I get my Texas ID online?

You can get your ID from your local driver license office, which also issues ID cards. To apply for your ID, get an application online or in person. Then, collect documentation to prove that you’re eligible to get a Texas ID.

How long is the written driving test in Texas?

Pass the Written Test If you are under 25 years of age, you must first take a driver education course at a Texas driving school. The written test consists of 30 questions. You need to answer 21 questions (70%) correctly to pass. To prepare for the test, you can use the Texas Driver Handbook.

Driver License Fees

*The following charge rates are inclusive of a $1 administration fee per transaction. In the case of transactions completed over the mail, there is no payment for the $1 administration fee.

License type *Fee Information
Driver license (Class A, B or C)
Under 18: new $16 Expires on your 18th birthday
Age 18 to 84: new $33 Expires after eight years (on your birthday)
Age 18 to 84: renewal $33 Expires eight years after previous expiration date
Age 85 and older: new $9 Expires after two years (on your birthday)
Age 85 and older: renewal $9 Expires two years after previous expiration date
Disabled veterans (60%): new or renewal Free Requirements for fee exemption
Replacement driver license $11 Current expiration date does not change
Replace a lost, stolen, or damaged license
Change address or name
Test to add or remove restrictions
Learner license—under 18
New $16 Expires on your 18th birthday
Motorcycle with driver license (Class AM, BM or CM)
Adding motorcycle to your existing driver license $16 Expiration date on driver license does not change
Obtaining a new Texas driver license and adding motorcycle $48 Expires when your driver license expires (depends on age; see driver license section)
Renewing a Texas driver license with Motorcycle $44
Motorcycle license (Class M) only
New $33 Expiration date depends on age; see driver license section
Renewal $44 Expiration date depends on age; see driver license section
Learner license for motorcycle (Class M) only
Under 18 $16 Expires on your 18th birthday
Limited term driver licenseFor temporary visitors to the US $33 Expires when period oflawful presenceexpires, or in one year if lawful presence period is “duration of status”
Occupational driver license
New or renewal $10per year Issued up to two yearsMustpay reinstatement feesfirst
Add interlock restriction to driver license $10 Mustpay reinstatement feesfirst
Driver license for individuals registered underChapter 62, CCP
New or renewal $21 Expires one year after previous expiration date

Identification Card (ID) Fees:

*The following charge rates are inclusive of a $1 administration fee. Transactions completed over the mail are exempt from the $1 administration fee charge.

ID type *Fee Information
Identification (ID) card
Age 59 and younger: new $16 Expires after six years (on your birthday)
Age 59 and younger: renewal $16 Expires six years after previous expiration date
Age 60 and older: new or renewal $6 Expires after six years (on your birthday)
Replacement ID card $11 Current expiration date does not change
Replace a lost, stolen, or damaged ID card
Change address or name
Limited term ID cardFor temporary visitors to the U.S. $16 Expires when period oflawful presenceexpires, or in one year if lawful presence period is “duration of status”
ID card for individuals registered underChapter 62, CCP
New or renewal $21 Expires one year after previous expiration date

Commercial Driver License (CDL) Fees:

*The following pricing rates include a $1 administration fee. Transactions completed over the mail are exempt from the $1 administration fee.

CDL type *Fee Information
Commercial driver license (CDL)
Age 18 to 84: new $97 Expires in eight years
Age 18 to 84: renewal $97 Expires eight years after previous expiration date
Age 18 to 84: new (with Hazardous Materials Endorsement) $61 Expires in five years
Age 18 to 84: renewal (with Hazardous Materials Endorsement) $61 Expires in five years
Age 85 and older: new $26 Expires after two years (on your birthday)
Age 85 and older: renewal $26 Expires two years after previous expiration date
Replacement CDL / CLP $11 Current expiration date does not change
Replace a lost, stolen, or damaged CDL
Change address or name
Test to add or remove endorsements or restrictions
Commercial Learners Permit – CLP
Original $25 Expires 180 days from issuance
Renewal $25 Must be renewed prior to expiration date
Motorcycle with CDL
New—add this to CDL fee $15 Expires when CDL expires (depends on age;see CDL section)
Renewal—add this to CDL renewal fee $8 Expires when CDL expires (depends on age;see CDL section)
Add motorcycle to existing CDL $16 Expiration date on CDL does not change
Non-domiciled CDL
New or renewalFor non-U.S. residents $121 Expires when period oflawful presenceexpires, as determined by U.S. Department of Homeland Security
CDL for individuals registered underChapter 62, CCP
New or renewal $21 Expires one year after previous expiration date

DMV Written Test 2022 Texas – DMV Practice Test 2022 – Real DMV Questions!

Real Questions and Answers from your local Department of Motor Vehicles. The structure and rules will be the same as they would be on the day of your exam.

Fast

In just a few minutes, you may take a simulated DMV Written test and receive immediate feedback.

Free

All Practice Sample Tests are completely free, and there is no need to register to take them.

High Passing Rate

People who trained with us passed their official DMV driving test in 95 percent of cases.

Success Stories

4.8 stars out of 5 Katherine Kuhn is a woman who lives in the United States. a few of days ago Thank you so much for putting out such an excellent website. I took the time to complete and examine all of the exams you provided for no cost to me. The next day, I went to the DMV and passed the written examination. Excellent preparation for the DMV test. I would absolutely suggest this company. It’s quick and simple! Excellent DMV exam questions that raise awareness of the responsibilities that we all have as new drivers in a safe environment.

Frequently Asked Questions

The cost of a Texas driver’s license is determined by your age at the time of application. For the most part, a driver’s license will cost you $25 to get. In the event that you are under the age of 18 at the time of application, you will be required to pay a charge of $16. If you are 84 years old or older, you will be charged $9 for a driver’s license. Additionally, you should anticipate paying probable application fees, testing fees, processing fees, or a combination of these expenses in addition to the license charge.

  1. Some drivers may find it more difficult than others, but with the proper amount of preparation and practice, any driver should be able to pass the Texas driving exam!
  2. Backing up, making rapid stops, and parallel parking are some of the more technical components of the Texas driving exam that you may encounter.
  3. Texas requires that drivers who have completed an authorized driving education course be at least 17 years old before they may acquire their full Driver License.
  4. A driver must be at least 15 years old in order to receive a Learner’s License, and at least 16 years old in order to obtain a Provisional Driver’s License.
  5. In Texas, candidates must first complete a parallel parking evaluation before they may be issued a driver’s license for the first time.
  6. If you don’t have access to cones to practice with, you may come up with some ingenious ways to outline a parking area instead.
  7. In low-traffic locations, you can even practice parallel parking alongside automobiles that have already been parked on the road if you feel comfortable doing so and under competent supervision.
  8. First and foremost, each candidate should familiarize himself or herself with the Texas Driver Handbook, which is chock-full of critical regulations, necessary driving training, and helpful safety advice.
  9. Finally, while having a Learner License that is appropriate for their age group, a motorist should practice supervised driving under the supervision of another person.

A driver should continue to practice supervised driving until they are entirely comfortable behind the wheel, even if it takes a longer amount of time than anticipated, in order to ensure that they are adequately prepared for the driving test.

As soon as it becomes necessary to study for your written knowledge exam, the first thing you should do is consult the Texas Driver Handbook for guidance. The manual contains all of the knowledge you’ll need to pass the exam, including vital legislation and driving instruction that you’ll need to know on the road. Examine several online practice quizzes when you’ve finished going through the manual. There is no better way to determine how well prepared you are than to take a practice exam that is similar to the one you will encounter at the driving licensing office before you apply for your license.

It is not necessary to take driver’s education if you are under the age of majority in your state, but learning from an instructor who is familiar with the ins and outs of state driving rules is a terrific way to help them stick in your mind.

First and foremost, each candidate should familiarize himself or herself with the Texas Driver Handbook, which is chock-full of critical regulations, necessary driving training, and helpful safety advice.

Finally, while having a Learner License that is appropriate for their age group, a motorist should practice supervised driving under the supervision of another person.

How Much is the Texas Driving Test?

Taking a driving exam and receiving a driver’s license in the United States is very inexpensive, particularly when compared to European countries. Did you know that getting a driver’s license in Norway costs around $3,675? Americans do not pay anything near that much for their driver’s licenses, and Texans pay even less than the typical American for their licenses! Is there a fee for the Texas driving test, and how much does it cost? And is it really mandatory for you to take it?

Who Is Required to Take the Texas Driver’s License Test?

The Texas Driver’s License Test, administered by the Department of Public Safety, is required of all first-time licensees (DPS). This test is divided into three sections:

  1. A written exam to assess your understanding of traffic regulations and signage
  2. In order to ensure driver safety, a vision exam is performed to evaluate if corrective lenses should be worn while driving. A behind-the-wheel driving test to assess your abilities and determine whether or not you are a safe driver

What happens if you’re relocating to Texas from anywhere else in the country? If you hold a driver’s license from another state and are above the age of 18, you may be able to exchange your out-of-state license for a new Texas driver’s license if you relinquish your out-of-state license. You will be able to avoid taking the Texas driving test as a result of this.

See also:  What Do Alaska And Hawaii Have In Common?

The Cost of Taking the Texas Driving Test

Although Texas does not charge a price for the driving test itself, it does charge a fee for the issuance of a license. Taking your Texas driver’s license exam is an important component of the qualification procedure for obtaining a license in Texas. It costs $25 to obtain a basic driver’s license in the state of Texas (this includes a $1 administrative charge). You will be required to pay this charge in advance, before to taking your driving test. After failing your driving test on the first attempt, your $25 fee will cover two further attempts within 90 days after your initial failure.

For this reason, licensed drivers moving to Texas from another state will still be required to pay the full $25 fee in order to exchange their out-of-state license for a Texas driver’s license.

Your Texas driver’s license will be valid for six years from the date of issue.

Other Costs of Getting a Texas Driver’s License

The state of Texas collects licensing fees rather than collecting a cost for the driving test itself. In order to be eligible for a Texas driver’s license, you must first pass the state’s written examination. It costs $25 to obtain a basic driver’s license in the state of Texas, which includes a $1 administrative charge. Your driving test money will be collected at the time of registration. The $25 cost will cover two further attempts within a 90-day period if you are unable to pass your driving test on the first attempt.

For this reason, licensed drivers moving to Texas from another state will still be required to pay the full $25 fee in order to exchange their out-of-state license for a Texas driver’s license.

This is due to the fact that the fee covers the cost of the license, rather than just the cost of taking the driving test. It will take six years for your Texas driver’s license to expire.

Texas Drivers License Renewal

Texas collects licensing fees rather than collecting a price for the driving test itself. Taking your Texas driver’s license exam is a requirement for obtaining your license. For a basic driver’s license in the state of Texas, the charge is $25 (which includes a $1 administration fee). You will be required to pay this price in full before taking your driving test. After failing your driving test on your first attempt, your $25 price will cover two further attempts within 90 days of your initial failure.

For this reason, licensed drivers migrating to Texas from another state will still be needed to pay the entire $25 charge in order to exchange their out-of-state license for a Texas driver’s license.

Your Texas driver’s license will be valid for six years after you obtain it.

Use eTags ©to Quickly Complete Your DMV Service. Renewals, Title Transfers and More, All Online!

TxDMV, also known as the Texas Department of Motor Vehicles, registers roughly 24 million vehicles every year, including automobiles, mopeds and motorbikes, pickup trucks, and RVs. Since 2015, Texans are no longer required to display inspection stickers on their windshields, although they are still required to examine their cars. If you’re discovered using your phone while driving in San Antonio, you might face a $200 fine; in Austin, the punishment could go as high as $500 if you’re caught using it while driving.

How to Renew a Texas Driver’s License

During a typical year, the Texas Department of Motor Vehicles (TxDMV) registers roughly 24 million vehicles, including automobiles, mopeds and motorbikes, pickup trucks, and RVs. After the year 2015, Texans are no longer required to display inspection stickers on their cars’ windshields, although they are still required to do routine vehicle inspections. It’s possible to get a $200 fine if you’re caught texting or talking on your phone while driving in San Antonio; the fine may be up to $500 in Austin.

When Do I Need to Renew My Driver’s License in Texas?

Residents of Texas between the ages of eighteen and eighty-four are required to renew their driver’s license every six years if they are under the age of eighteen. Those above the age of eighty-five, on the other hand, must renew their licenses every two years. The renewal process for a Texas driver’s license can be done at any time up to one year before the expiration date of the present license is reached. A driver’s license must also be renewed every twelve years by visiting the Department of Public Safety to have their photo, fingerprints, and signature updated.

Drivers have the option of renewing their licenses online, by mail, by phone, or in person. There are unique qualifying restrictions for transactions conducted online and over the phone.

Online Driver’s License Renewal

Drivers must fulfill the following eligibility conditions in order to utilize the online driver’s license renewal tool or to renew their driver’s license remotely by phone:

  • Having previously renewed their license in person (Texas drivers can only renew their license online once per two renewal terms)
  • Have a valid driver’s license that will expire no more than one year from the date of renewal
  • Not having a license that has been expired for more than two years
  • No outstanding warrants or traffic tickets
  • No outstanding fines or fees In the two years after their previous renewal, they have not developed any new medical issues that may impair their ability to drive
  • Reside in the state of Texas
  • Have their Social Security Number on file with the Department of Public Safety

Drivers who want to renew their Commercial Driver’s License (DMV) must attend to the DMV office in person. For those drivers who have met all of the previously specified requirements, they can finish the renewal procedure online or by calling 1-866-357-3639, which is located on the Texas Department of Public Safety website. Aside from their date of birth and audit number, drivers will also be needed to supply the last four digits of their Social Security number and their Texas driving license number.

Required Driver’s License Renewal Fees

The following are the current license renewal fees, which vary depending on your age:

  • Under the age of eighteen (18), there is a $6 license renewal cost. Between the ages of 18 and 84, the license renewal charge is $25
  • Between the ages of 85 and upwards, the license renewal fee is $9.

Renewing Your Driver’s License By Mail

Drivers who renew their licenses by mail must fulfill the same requirements as those who renew their licenses over the phone or online. To renew a license by the mail, applicants must submit the following documents:

  • Proof of Social Security Number
  • Form DL63 for class C licenses, or Form CDL-2 for class A or B non-commercial driver’s licenses
  • Proof of residency in the United States
  • For people who are currently out of state or out of the nation, a scan card (LI 50) is available. Make your check or money order payable to the Texas Department of Public Safety for the required driver’s license renewal cost, which is determined by your age as indicated above

a copy of your Social Security card; a completed Form DL63 for class C licenses or a completed Form CDL-2 for class A or B noncommercial driver’s licenses; and If you are currently out of state or out of the nation, you can use the scan card (LI 50). Payable to the Texas Department of Public Safety, a check or money order for the mandatory driver’s license renewal cost, which is depending on the age ranges shown above;

In Person Driver’s License Renewal

If you meet any of the following conditions, you must renew your license in person in Texas:

  • 79 years of age or older
  • Non-citizen of the United States
  • And a temporary residence Under the age of eighteen, renewing a provisional driver’s license is permitted.

Applicants must complete Form DL-43, present their current driver’s license, have their photograph taken, and pay the renewal cost in person in order to renew their Texas driver’s license. Additional proof of identification documents will be required from drivers, including one primary document, two secondary documents, or one secondary document and two supporting documents. Primary identification documents include a Texas driver’s license, a current United States passport, or a proof of citizenship in the United States.

As supporting documentation, a Social Security card, a W-2 form, and an out-of-state driver’s license or identification card may be utilized.

A driver’s license renewal in Texas has never been easier, thanks to a six-week reminder, affordable renewal fees, a variety of simple renewal alternatives, and a two-year grace period after the license has expired.

Scheduling an Appointment to Renew Your Driver’s License

If you have any further questions about how to renew your Texas driver’s license, or if you would like to schedule an appointment to renew your TX license in person, please call the DMV office that is most convenient for you.

Renewing Your Texas Driver License

For many Texans, renewing a driver’s license is on par with paying taxes and standing in a never-ending line at the post office when it comes to administrative burdens. The good news is that if you prepare for the inevitable notification in the mail by learning the fundamentals of license renewal in advance, it will feel like less of a headache when you receive it.

Here’s everything you need to know about renewing your driver’s license in the state of Texas, broken down step by step.

License Validity Period

Was it ever brought to your attention that the length of time that your Texas driver’s license is valid is determined by your age? For those who are under the age of eighteen when they first obtain their driver’s license, their license will expire on their eighteenth birthday. You can keep your Texas driver’s license for up to six years if you are between the ages of 18 and 84. However, if you reach the age of 85, you will be required to renew your license on a two-year cycle.

When to Renew Your License

Up to one year before the expiration date of your Texas driver license and up to two years after the expiration date of your Texas driving license are available for renewal. This is also a good opportunity to change your mailing address if you’ve just relocated. If it has been more than two years since you last held a valid driver’s license in Texas, you are no longer eligible for renewal. To go from there, you must apply for a fresh new driver’s license, pass a written exam, and then pass a driving test.

Special Circumstances

If your license has been suspended, it will not be eligible for renewal and will have to be reinstated instead of renewed. If you’ve lost your license or it’s been stolen or destroyed, you can obtain a replacement. Fortunately, you may still renew a lost, stolen, or damaged card provided you have a record of your license number and audit number.

Renewal Methods

Did you know that there are four different ways to renew your driver’s license? For many busy citizens, renewing their licenses online is the most convenient and time-saving option. However, in order to apply online, you will need access to a printer in order to print off your temporary license card. You may also renew your license over the phone by providing the same information that you would supply on the website. In the event that you fulfill the requirements to renew your license by mail, you will get a renewal notification from the Texas Department of Public Safety.

Any motorist under the age of 18 or over the age of 79 must renew in person.

Active duty military members who are stationed outside of Texas are given an additional 90 days to renew their driver’s licenses when they are released.

Renewal Fees

Your renewal fee in Texas is determined by your age, just as it is in other areas of the state’s license renewal statute. Drivers under the age of eighteen can benefit from a low renewal charge of only six dollars. drivers aged 18-84 will be charged $25, while drivers aged 85 and over would be charged only $9. Payment for license renewal can be made using cash, credit card, check, or money order, all of which are accepted methods of payment.

Driver’s License Fees

Until 9-1-85, the first dollar of each driver’s license fee was put in the Public Safety Building Fund (No. 0081), which is now depleted. To support research into rail passenger service, 25 cents of the driver’s license fee was paid into the Rail Passenger Service Study Fund (No. 0505) from September 1, 1983 to August 31, 1985. (created by H.B. 1273, 68th Leg., R.S., effective 1-1-84.) (2) and (4) were revised by S.B. 288, 68th Leg., R.S., which became effective on September 1, 1983. (1), (4), (5), and (6c) were revised by H.B.

  1. (1), (4), (5), and (6c) were amended by H.B.
  2. 859, 71st Leg., R.S., which became effective on September 1, 1989.
  3. 1935 and S.B.
  4. (1), as modified by H.B.
  5. (3), as amended by H.B.
  6. (5), as amended by H.B.
  7. Since H.B.

Fees were not waived in the case of 0099.

(3) was changed, and (6a) was added.

1200, 75th Leg., R.S.(7a), H.B.

434, 72nd Leg., R.S.(6b), H.B.

434, 72nd Leg., R.S.(6b), H.B.

510 and S.B.

1048, 75th Leg., R.S.(7) and (7a), amendments made by S.B.370, 76th Leg., R.S.(7) and (7a), amendments made by H.B.

(8) H.B.

1403, 75th Leg., R.S., and became effective on September 1, 1997.

0365) commencing on September 1, 2005.

(10) S.B.

79th Leg., R.S.

The charge for a disability certificate under Section 521.423 was eliminated by H.B.

(11) Added by H.B.

(12) S.B.

(13) S.B.

The charge is necessary for constitutional purposes under Art.

(14) H.B.

Added by Senate Bill 1, 82nd Congress, 1st Congress of the United States, effective 9-28-11.

3283, 84th Leg., R.S., was added to the statute book.

3050, 85th Leg., R.S., the instruction permit was modified to a learner license.

1078 of the 86th Legislature, the exemptions for foster youngsters and those with CPR certification have been expanded and codified.

346, 86th Leg, R.S., which raised costs and introduced new charges to the statute. S.B. 616, 86th Leg, r.s., which increased fees and added new charges to the statute (17). Licenses granted or renewed on or after June 1, 2020 will be covered by this provision.

Drivers License Cost by State 2021

It wasn’t until 9-1-85 that the first dollar of every driver’s license fee was put in the Public Safety Building Fund (No. 0081). 25 of the driver’s license fee was placed into the Rail Passenger Service Study Fund (No. 0505) from September 1, 1983, to August 31, 1985. (created by H.B. 1273, 68th Leg., R.S., effective 1-1-84.) Amendments to Sections (2) and (4) made by S.B. 288 of the 68th Legislative Session of the Texas Legislature, effective September 1, 1983. 69th Leg., R.S., ch. 1593, 69th Sess., effective 9-1-85, revised subsections (1), (4), (5), and (6c) 1 and 4 of section 6c were amended by House Bill 1935 and Senate Bill 859 of the 71st Congress, first session of the R.S.

  • 2 of section 6c was amended by H.B.
  • The provisions of subsections (1), (3), and (5) of H.B.
  • 1126 of the 72nd Legislative Assembly’s Second Committee on the Constitution.
  • 3050, 74th Leg., R.S., fees have been placed in the Operators and Chauffeurs License Fund (0099), which has been exempted from loss of devotion ( 403.094, Government Code) for court expenses and as a federal sum under certain conditions.
  • a modification was made to the name of the deposit: general revenue (0001).
  • 99 of the 75th Legislature (R.S.(6b)) was added by H.B.
  • Amendments made by S.B.
See also:  What All Do I Need To Renew My Driver'S License? (Perfect answer)

371, 73rd Leg., R.S.(7) and (7a), H.B.

3641, 76th Leg., R.S(7) and (7a), amendments made by H.B.

2663, 77th Leg., R.S., was introduced to add this section (9) 9-1-97 was the effective date of the addition made by Senate Bill 1403 of the 75th Congress of the Republic of the United States of America.

A shift in the deposit of most of these fees from the Mobility Fund (0365) to General Revenue (0001) for the 2006-07 biennium was made by Senate Bill 1863 of the 79th Legislative Session of the United States Congress.

1005, 79th Leg., R.S., was added as a new section to the statute.

eliminated the change of address certificate and replaced it with the issuance of a duplicate license ($10 charge) under H.B.

The Disability Certificate Fee under Section 521.423 was eliminated by House Bill 1789.

84, 80th Legislative Session (Republican Party of America).

(1) S.B.

Art.

(1) H.B.

Added by Senate Bill 1, 82nd Congress, 1st Congress of the United States, effective September 28, 2011.

3283, 84th Leg., R.S., was added as an amendment.

3050, 85th Leg., R.S., the instruction permit was converted to a learner license.

1078, 86th Leg., R.S., exemptions for foster youngsters and those who have received CPR certification were added.

86th Leg., R.S.(10) repealed moped fees (6 (c)), which were altered by S.B. 346, 86th Leg, R.S., which increased fees and introduced new charges to the statutes of the state (17). Licenses granted or renewed on or after June 1, 2020 will be covered by this policy change.

So you need to renew your driver’s license in Texas?

It was last updated on January 2022.

We have updated this page – visit the latest version here.

Here’s all you need to know about renewing your driver’s license in Texas. We’ve made the procedure as simple as possible for you so that you can save time.

What You’ll Need to Renew your Texas Driver License

Payment of $25 for the renewal of a Class C driver’s license ($16 if under the age of 18). To renew your membership online. The number on your Texas driver’s license Number of the audit (found on renewal card) access to a printing device (to print your temporary license) To renew your license at the DMV in person. Application for Renewal, Replacement, or Change of a Texas Driver License or Identification Card that has been fully completed (Form DL-32) Proof of identification, proof of Social Security number, proof of authorized residence in the United States, and proof of Texas residency are all required.

VOE Form, high school diploma or GED, or a recent report card and attendance record are all acceptable forms of identification for students (if under age 18)

What You’ll Do to Renew your Texas Driver License

  • Step 1: Go to the Driver License Renewal and Change of Addresswebsite of the Department of Motor Vehicles.
  • Please submit the necessary information. Make your payment
  • Obtain a temporary driver’s license (which cannot be emailed and is only valid for 45 days)
  • 2. You will get your renewed Texas Class C driver’s license via the mail in approximately three weeks.

Caveats and Exceptions

  • If any of the following apply, you will need to visit the DMV in person to renew your driver’s license:
  • You did not renew your driver’s license in person at the DMV the previous time you did so. You are under the age of majority in the United States
  • You have not yet validated your citizenship or lawful status in the United States with the DMV
  • You are not a citizen of the United States
  • Your driver’s license expired more than two years ago, did it? Then you’ll have to go through the process of getting a new driver’s license, which includes passing both the written and driving exams.

More Texas DMV Questions?

Visit our Texas DMV information page to avoid waiting in line at the DMV. Obtain the services of a line waiting concierge. Are you in a hurry? Get a DMV appointment as soon as possible. All of this information is available for free on the Skip app (and you can earn a $10 credit for the app if you use this link).

What Happens If I’m Driving Without a License in Texas?

When it comes to obtaining a driver’s license in Texas, the rules are quite straightforward. As a driver, it’s critical that you are aware of these rules, their fines, and the ramifications of breaking them if you find yourself in one of the situations described below. While Patterson Law Group is a personal injury business and therefore unable to assist you if you are caught driving without a license in Texas, our attorneys can answer any concerns you may have about the situation. This service is completely free, and they may even be able to recommend a fantastic traffic ticket attorney to you.

If you are injured in an accident with an unlicensed driver, please contact us so that we can discuss your options.

Driving Without a License Charge in Texas

The fact that it is against the law to operate a vehicle without a driver’s license should be known by everybody who is eligible to receive one; sadly, this does not deter many from breaching the law. Residents of Texas who are discovered driving without a legal license for the first time can be fined up to $200 if they are caught driving without a license. You will be charged with a misdemeanor if you are discovered breaching this law for the second time within a year. The fine will vary from $25 and $200 if you are caught violating this law a third time.

Should be stressed that if you cause an accident that causes injury or death to someone else while driving without a license, the penalty becomes considerably more severe and expensive. Simply put, the danger is not worth the cost.

Driving Without a License on Person in Texas

Everybody has those days when they are rushing out the door with their keys in hand and little time to waste, they get halfway to their destination and – as fate would have it – they are stopped by the police and taken into custody. It wasn’t until then that you remembered you had forgotten to bring your driver’s license with you. If your fortunes turn, you might be able to get away with a written warning, but the chances are good that you’ll wind up with a traffic citation for failing to provide proof of a valid license.

It is possible to escape a conviction in this situation by submitting your driver’s license as evidence to the court that your license is still in good standing and that you are still legally able to drive.

Driving Without a License from Out of State

In order to drive on Texas roadways, regardless of whether you have recently relocated or are only traveling through, you must carry a valid driver’s license. Unless you have your out-of-state license with you when you are stopped, you will very certainly be issued a ticket for failing to demonstrate that your license exists and is valid in the state where it was issued. Driving with an out-of-state license that has been revoked or suspended only results in further difficulties for you, especially if you cause an accident.

If you have just relocated to Texas, you have up to 90 days to get a valid driver’s license in the state of your residence.

For individuals who are new to Texas, the Texas Department of Public Safety makes it simple and quick to transfer your out-of-state driver’s license to the state of Texas, as long as your present license is still in good standing with the state.

Talk to a Lawyer If You Were In a Car Accident With an Unlicensed Driver

Although the chances of being involved in an accident with an unlicensed driver appear to be minimal, the reality is that it might happen to you or someone you know at any time. It is for this reason that we believe it is essential to offer you with this broad information — no one wants to find themselves in this situation without being fully informed. Since we understand that everyone’s situation can be complicated and at times plain baffling, we want to assure you that we are here to assist you 24 hours a day, seven days per week.

We are familiar with Texas’s driving regulations and are always prepared to fight for our clients, no matter what the situation may be.

In order to better serve our clients, we go the additional mile. Make an appointment with our experts at Patterson Law Group now by calling 817-784-2000 for a free first consultation about your legal matter.

Schedule Your FREE Case Evaluation

Adapted from Ballotpedia

Life in the 50 states
This article is part of a Ballotpedia project detailing the costs of select government services and consumer products in the 50 states as of 2018-2019. Birth certificate costs by state Driver’s license costs by state Park entrance costs by state Car registration costs by state Liquor license costs by state Gasoline costs by state Egg prices by state Milk prices by state Cigarette taxes by state
  • The cost of a driver’s license varies from state to state and, in certain cases, across different parts of a single state. It is an official document that grants the right to operate one or more types of motorized vehicles to a certain individual. A variety of permits are offered to those who wish to drive various types of motorized transportation vehicles, such as commercial trucks, passenger cars, and motorbikes, among others. HIGHLIGHTS
  • While state-issued driver’s license rates varied by state, they ranged from $10.00 in Missouri to $89.00 in Washington in March 2018. Eight states charged less than $20.00 for driver’s licenses at the time of the survey. Meanwhile, 14 states levied fees of $40.00 or higher. For further information on the cost of a driver’s license in each state, please see the map and table below.

Driver’s license costs by state

The information in the table below gives comprehensive information on the cost of obtaining a driver’s license in each of the 50 states.

Driver’s license costs by state, 2018
State Driver’s license cost Duration (years) Cost per year Notes
Alabama $36.25 4 $9.06
Alaska $20.00 5 $4.00
Arizona $25.00 12 $2.08
Arkansas $40.00 8 $5.00
California $33.00 5 $6.60 $35 renewal fee
Colorado $26.00 5 $5.20 $27 renewal fee
Connecticut $72.00 7 $10.29
Delaware $40.00 8 $5.00
Florida $48.00 8 $6.00
Georgia $32.00 8 $4.00
Hawaii $20.00 4 $5.00
Idaho $30.00 4 $7.50
Illinois $30.00 4 $7.50
Indiana $17.50 6 $2.92
Iowa $32.00 8 $4.00
Kansas $23.00 4 $5.75
Kentucky $30.00 4 $7.50 $20 renewal fee
Louisiana $32.25 6 $5.38
Maine $30.00 6 $5.00
Maryland $72.00 5 $14.40
Massachusetts $50.00 5 $10.00
Michigan $25.00 4 $6.25
Minnesota $25.25 4 $6.31
Mississippi $24.00 4 $6.00
Missouri $10.00 3 $3.33
Montana $40.50 8 $5.06 $41.72 renewal fee
Nebraska $21.50 4 $5.38
Nevada $42.25 4 $10.56
New Hampshire $50.00 5 $10.00
New Jersey $24.00 4 $6.00
New Mexico $18.00 4 $4.50
New York $64.25 8 $8.03
North Carolina $40 8 $5.00
North Dakota $15.00 4 $3.75
Ohio $23.00 4 $5.75
Oklahoma $38.50 N/A
Oregon $60.00 8 $7.50
Pennsylvania $35.50 4 $8.88 $30.50 renewal fee
Rhode Island $38.50 5 $7.70 $61.50 renewal fee
South Carolina $12.50 5 $2.50
South Dakota $28.00 5 $5.60
Tennessee $28.00 8 $4.00
Texas $25.00 6 $4.17
Utah $25.00 5 $5.00
Vermont $32.00 2 $16.00
Virginia $32.00 8 $4.00
Washington $89.00 6 $14.83
West Virginia $40.00 5 $8.00
Wisconsin $34.00 8 $4.25
Wyoming $20.00 8 $2.50 Commercial $40.00

See also

  • Economic indicators by state
  • State population demographics by age and gender
  • State economic indicators by region

Footnotes

  1. In March 2018, Ballotpedia staff members produced the following information.
veBallotpedia
About OverviewWhat people are sayingSupport BallotpediaContactContributeJob opportunities


Executive:Leslie Graves, PresidentGwen Beattie, Chief Operating OfficerKen Carbullido, Vice President of Election Product and Technology StrategyCommunications:Kayla HarrisMegan BrownMary DunneSarah GroatLauren NemerovskiExternal Relations:Alison PrangeSara KeyKari BergerHannah NelsonOperations:Meghann OlshefskiLauren DixonKelly RindfleischPolicy:Christopher NelsonCaitlin StyrskyMolly ByrneKatharine FreyJace LingtonJimmy McAllisterTech:Matt Latourelle, Tech ManagerRyan BurchMichael CellaKirsten CorraoMargaret KearneyTom ReitzContributors:Scott Rasmussen


Editorial Geoff Pallay, Editor-in-ChiefDaniel Anderson, Managing EditorJosh Altic, Managing EditorCory Eucalitto, Managing EditorMandy Gillip, Managing EditorJerrick AdamsVictoria AntramDave BeaudoinJaclyn BeranMarielle BrickerRyan ByrneKate CarsellaKelly CoyleMegan FeeneyJuan García de ParedesSara HortonTyler KingDoug KronaizlAmee LaTourDavid LuchsBrittony MaagAndrew McNairJackie MitchellElisabeth MooreEllen MorrisseyMackenzie MurphySamantha PostPaul RaderEthan RiceMyj SaintylMaddie Sinclair JohnsonAbbey SmithJanie ValentineCaitlin Vanden BoomJoel WilliamsCorinne WolyniecSamuel WonacottMercedes Yanora

How to get Drivers License in Texas

In March 2018, Ballotpedia staff members produced this material.

1. Enroll in a Drivers Ed Course

What is the procedure for obtaining a Texas driver’s license at the age of 18? The first step would be to enroll in an adult drivers education course in Texas. You should be certain that the service you pick is recognized by the Texas Department of Licensing and Regulation before enrolling in an adult drivers education course, whether in a classroom setting or online (TDLR). It is your responsibility to ensure that you have the information and abilities necessary to pass your driving test at the DPS and to be prepared for the obstacles you will experience behind the wheel after completing your online Texas adult drivers ed course.

  • Traffic signs and signals
  • Proper emergency vehicle procedure
  • Proper use of safety restraints
  • The risks and repercussions of driving while under the influence of drugs or alcohol
  • And many more topics.

Please keep in mind that while new drivers in Texas under the age of 18 are needed to apply for a Learner License, after you reach the age of 18, you are no longer required to complete this step in order to obtain your drivers license. One often asked issue is whether or not it is possible to obtain a Texas driver’s license at the age of 18 without a permission. The answer is a resounding yes! After the age of eighteen, you are no longer necessary to obtain a learners permit in order to drive.

2. Drivers License Test Day Preparation

Following successful completion of your TDLR-approved 6-hour drivers education course and the ITYD procedure, you’ll be ready to visit your local DPS office and take your Texas drivers license exam. You’ll need to schedule an appointment in advance, which you can do on the Texas Department of Public Safety’s website. Depending on your location, you may be required to schedule your appointment several weeks to several months in advance. Don’t wait until the last minute to make a decision. You’ll need to arrive at least an hour before your scheduled appointment to allow time for processing.

See also:  How To Buy Property In Alaska?

The following is a list of the documentation that you must bring with you to the DPS appointment:

  1. You will need your adult drivers education certificate of completion to demonstrate that you have met this criterion.
  1. The following documents are required to verify your identity: a Social Security card, evidence of United States citizenship (such as a birth certificate, passport, or green card), as well as verification of your Texas residency. a fully completed application for a driver’s license
  2. Your $25 price for a drivers license

3. Taking Your Drivers Exam

If you want to be able to walk out of the DPS with your driver’s license, you’ll need to be prepared to pass the following exams on the day of your visit:

  1. The written drivers license exam
  2. A vision test
  3. And a behind-the-wheel driving test are all part of the process.

a written drivers license examination; a vision examination; and a behind-the-wheel driving examination

4. Hitting the Road

  • The written drivers license examination
  • A vision examination
  • And a behind-the-wheel driving examination

Congratulations, you are almost finished! The DPS will require you to give a thumbprint and have your photograph taken before you can leave the office. You’ll be issued a temporary Texas drivers license, which will offer you the legal authority to drive on your own for the time being – and that’s how you obtain a drivers license in the state of Texas. Your beautiful new driver’s license will be sent to your home within two to three weeks.

Texas

Learning to drive is an exhilarating experience, but it also comes with a great deal of responsibility. Before being granted the privilege of driving without limits, the Texas Department of Public Safety (DPS) requires prospective drivers to complete training and show knowledge and abilities behind the wheel. Drivers who have just moved to Texas or whose out-of-state licenses have expired before to arriving in the state are needed to complete this process.

There are subtle differences in the criteria for obtaining a TX driver’s license depending on whether you are a juvenile or an adult, and whether you are applying for a conventional license or a REAL ID card.

Driver’s Education Requirements in Texas

All new drivers under the age of 25 who wish to take their road test must first finish a driving education course that is appropriate for their age:

  • Under the age of 18, a standard high school Driver’s Edcourse or a parent-taught driver education (PTDE) course, as well as the 2-hour Impact Teen Texas Drivers (ITTD) course, are required. A 6-hour adult driving education course AND the 2-hour Impact Texas Young Drivers (ITYD) course are required for drivers between the ages of 18 and 24.

To begin your Driver’s Education course, you must be at least fourteen years old. After completing your course, you’ll get a Texas Driver Education Certificate (form DE-964 or DE-964E), which you’ll need to send to the DPS in order to apply for your learner’s permit and/or driver’s license. In order to obtain your driver’s license while under the age of eighteen, you must complete at least 32 hours of classroom teaching, as well as seven hours of in-car observation with your instructor and seven more hours of in-car driving instruction.

For drivers between the ages of 18 and 24, your 6-hour Driver’s Ed course can be taken online or in a traditional classroom setting.

New drivers must take the Impact Texas Drivers course (either the ITTD or ITYD course, depending on their age), which is a brief video course that they must watch before completing their road test.

Getting a Texas Driver’s License—Teen Drivers

Applicants under the age of 18 in Texas must first go through a staged licensing procedure known as graduated driver licensing before being granted a full, unrestricted license (GDL). You’ll go through the following steps:

  • Finalize your driver’s education program
  • Apply for a learner’s permit and put your skills to the test
  • To obtain your temporary license, you must pass a road test. Learn to drive with a complete driver’s license

Step 1—Getting Your TX Learner License

Prior to being eligible to receive a full driver’s license in Texas, all new teenage drivers must first obtain a learner’s permit (also known as a learner license in the state). In order to obtain your permission, you must be at least 15 years old. For the application process to be successful, you must first have finished the requisite Driver’s Ed course hours, which can begin as early as 14 years of age. A concurrent course requires you to complete the first six hours; a block course requires you to complete all 32 hours of classroom training.

Your Driver’s Ed instructor will be able to advise you on the best course technique to use for your particular situation.

  • Identity and legal presence in the United States
  • Social Security number
  • And Texas residence are all required.
  • If you’re applying for a REAL ID-compliant permit, the Texas Department of Public Safety provides a comprehensive reference to valid identification papers, as well as aREAL ID checklist.

Children under the age of majority must submit a completed Texas Driver License or Identification Card Application (form DL-14B). Your application must be signed by your parent or guardian. Submit a completed and signed Verification of Enrollment and Attendance (VOE)form, signed by a school administrator, within 30 days of receipt, or a high school graduation or GED, whichever is more recent. Pass a vision check as well as a knowledge examination.

  • The DPS will not require you to repeat your knowledge exam if it was administered as part of your driver education course

Please get your picture taken and your signature and thumbprints collected. Pay the $16 price for a learner’s permit.

Learner’s Permit Restrictions in Texas

You must have your new Texas learner’s license for at least six months before applying for your provisional license in the state of Texas (unless you turn 18 years old first).

All learner licensees are also required to conform to the following rules and regulations:

  • You are only permitted to drive under the supervision of a licensed driver who is at least 21 years old
  • No wireless communications equipment, including hands-free handsets, is permitted unless you are in immediate need of assistance from an emergency agency.

Step 2—Applying for a TX Provisional License

After having had your learner’s license for at least 6 months and being at least 16 years old, you can apply for a Texas provisional driver’s license (also known as a provisional license). All drivers under the age of 18 must, however, complete the requisite behind-the-wheel component of their Driver’s Ed course, as well as the required driving practice hours, before they may get behind the wheel. This includes the following:

  • You will be required to observe your teacher in the car for 7 hours as they educate you. You will be required to complete 7 hours of in-car driving with your Driver’s Ed teacher. 30 total hours of supervised driving practice with your parent or guardian, with at least 10 hours of that practice being done at night.

Additionally, you will be need to complete theImpact Texas Teen Drivers (ITTD)video course before taking your road test. When you’re ready, schedule an appointment with the Department of Public Safety for your road test. The road test requires you to bring a registered car and a licensed driver who is at least 21 years old with you to the location of the test. Bring the following items as well:

  • Minors must submit a fully completed Texas Driver License or Identification Card Application (form DL-14B). Your application must be signed by your parent or guardian. Your learner’s permit in Texas
  • As evidence of your:
  • Identity and legal presence in the United States
  • Social Security number
  • And Texas residence are all required.
  • If you’re applying for a REAL ID-compliant license, the Texas Department of Public Safety provides a comprehensive reference to valid identification papers, as well as aREAL ID checklist.

Proof of your successful completion of Driver’s Ed instruction and behind-the-wheel practice hours is required. Your Impact Texas Driver Program completion certificate will be mailed to you. A copy of the vehicle’s registration and evidence of insurance, if you intend to test drive it. Payment has been received for the $16 licensing fee. Depending on your situation, you may also be required to retake your eye exam and photo, as well as submit your thumbprints. Following your successful completion of the road test, the examiner will award you with a temporary license that you can use until your permanent picture card is received in the mail.

TX Provisional License Restrictions

With a temporary license, you have a little more independence when it comes to driving about. However, there are still certain limits that you’ll need to adhere to, such as:

  • You are not permitted to transport more than one person under the age of 21 who is not a member of your immediate family in the car. You are not permitted to drive between the hours of 12:00 a.m. and 5:00 a.m., save to and from work or school (or in the case of a medical emergency)
  • You are still prohibited from using a mobile phone or other wireless communications device while operating a motor vehicle.

Step 3—Earning Your Unrestricted Texas Driver’s License

Only one passenger under the age of 21 who is not a member of your family may ride in the car at any given time. Except to and from work or school (or in an emergency), you are not permitted to drive between the hours of 12:00 AM and 5:00 AM. Using a mobile phone or other wireless communications device while operating a motor vehicle is still prohibited;

Getting a Texas Driver’s License—18 or Older

For those who are eighteen years old or older when they apply for their very first Texas drivers license, they are exempt from participating in the whole graduated driver licensing program. Applicants between the ages of 18 and 24 will be required to complete a 6-hour adult driver education course as well as a 2-hour Impact Texas Young Drivers (ITYD) course before they can be considered. Applicants who are 25 years old or older are exempt from these restrictions. When you’re ready, schedule an appointment with the Department of Public Safety for your road test.

Prepare to do the following:

  • Form DL-14A, Application for a Texas Driver License or Identification Card for Adults, must be completed and submitted. Please provide evidence of your:
  • Identity and legal presence in the United States
  • Social Security number
  • And Texas residence are all required.
  • If you’re applying for a REAL ID-compliant license, the Texas Department of Public Safety provides a comprehensive reference to valid identification papers, as well as aREAL ID checklist.

If relevant, provide documentation of your completion of a 6-hour adult Driver’s Education course. If you have completed the Impact Texas Driver Program, please bring your certificate of completion with you. Please bring the vehicle’s registration and proof of insurance with you to the testing location.

Pass a vision examination as well as a written knowledge examination. Pass the test on on-road abilities (as long as you passed your knowledge test). You will be photographed after you have provided your thumbprints. Make a payment of $33 toward the licensing cost.

Following your successful completion of the road test, the examiner will award you with a temporary license that you can use until your permanent picture card is received in the mail. Keep this temporary license with you at all times, together with your permit.

Transferring an Out-of-State Driver’s License to Texas

If you have an out-of-state driver’s license and relocate to Texas, you have 90 days to apply for a Texas driver’s license once you have established residency in the state.

Transferring a Learner’s Permit to Texas

A learner license issued by another state can be exchanged for a learner license issued by the state of Texas without having to retake the knowledge examination. The Texas Impact Driving course, as well as a driver education course, must be completed before you may apply for a full license in the state of Texas. Bring the following items with you to the DPS in order to transfer your learner’s license:

  • Your out-of-state permit or learner’s license
  • And documentation of the following:
  • It is necessary to provide proof of the following: your out-of-state permit or learner’s license
  • If you’re applying for a REAL ID-compliant permit, the Texas Department of Public Safety provides a comprehensive reference to valid identification papers, as well as aREAL ID checklist.

Make note that all learner license applicants in Texas must keep their permit for a minimum of 6 months before applying for a full driver’s license—even if you’ve already had a learner’s license in another state for a certain amount of time in your prior home state. If you have a previous holding period, you will not be eligible for credit.

Transferring an Out-of-State Unrestricted License to Texas

If you already hold a complete, unrestricted out-of-state driver’s license, the procedure of converting it to a Texas driver’s license is quite straightforward. But first and foremost, you must:

  • A driver’s license from another state that is complete and unrestricted can be converted to a Texas driver’s license with minimal effort. However, you must first complete the following tasks.
  • If you do not have access to a car, you will be required to sign a statement at the DPS stating as such.

It is necessary for you to visit a DPS office in person in order to exchange your out-of-state license for a TX one. Take a look at the documents listed below.

  • Your valid out-of-state driver’s license
  • And documentation demonstrating your:
  • Identity and citizenship, or valid presence in the United States
  • Social Security number
  • And Texas residence are required.
  • If you’re applying for a REAL ID-compliant license, the Texas Department of Public Safety provides a comprehensive reference to valid identification papers, as well as aREAL ID checklist.

Payment of the relevant charge, which is determined by your age:

  • Under 18 years old: $16, 18 to 84 years old: $33, 85 years old and up: $9, and disabled veterans: free

Additionally, if you are under the age of 18 years, you will have to retake the skills examination—even if you already hold a complete license from your former state. A vision screening is required of all out-of-state candidates, although the vast majority will not be required to repeat a written exam or driving test. Although these examinations are not required in most cases, specific conditions (such as a license that has expired from another state) may make them necessary.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *