What Is An Export Subsidy Investopedia? (Solution found)

Export subsidies consist of all subsidies on goods and services that become payable to resident producers when the goods leave the economic territory or when the services are delivered to non-resident units; they include direct subsidies on exports, losses of government trading enterprises in respect of trade with non-

What are export subsidies?

  • Export subsidies are payments made by the government to encourage the export of specified products. As with taxes, subsidies can be levied on a specific or ad valorem basis. The most common product groups where export subsidies are applied are agricultural and dairy products.

What is export subsidy example?

Export subsidy is a government policy to encourage export of goods and discourage sale of goods on the domestic market through direct payments, low-cost loans, tax relief for exporters, or government-financed international advertising. Saudi Arabia is a net exporter of wheat, Japan often is a net exporter of rice.

Why do nations subsidize exports?

Export subsidies are used when high tariffs raise the domestic price of commodities as a result of which domestic output expands. If there are also domestic production support programs, this output expansion will be greater, potentially affecting world prices through an artificially increased global supply.

What is export subsidy Upsc?

Export Subsidy: Subsidy on inputs of agriculture, making export cheaper or other incentives for exports such as import duty remission etc are included under export subsidies.

What is an export subsidy quizlet?

Export subsidies are direct payments to the nation’s exporters or potential exporters and/or low -interest loans to foreign buyers to stimulate the nation’s exports.

What is a export subsidy in economics?

A subsidy to exporters, so that the price per unit received by the producers of exports is higher than the price charged to foreign customers. Firms competing with imports which they claim have received export subsidies may be able to obtain countervailing import duties to offset the effects of these subsidies.

How does an export subsidy affect the government budget?

The increase in their domestic price lowers the amount of consumer surplus in the market. Export subsidy effects on the exporting country’s producers. The government must pay the subsidy to exporters. These payments must come out of the general government budget.

What do you mean by subsidy?

A subsidy is a benefit given to an individual, business, or institution, usually by the government. The subsidy is typically given to remove some type of burden, and it is often considered to be in the overall interest of the public, given to promote a social good or an economic policy.

Why does export subsidy worsen terms of trade?

An export subsidy will raise the domestic price and, in the case of a large country, reduce the foreign price. An export subsidy will increase the quantity of exports. The export subsidy will drive a price wedge, equal to the subsidy value, between the foreign price and the domestic price of the product.

How does a production subsidy differ from an export subsidy?

A production subsidy provides a payment based on all production regardless of where it is sold. An export subsidy, on the other hand, only offers a payment to the quantity or value that is actually exported. An export subsidy is classified as a trade policy, whereas a production subsidy is a domestic policy.

Are export subsidies a form of dumping?

Dumping is an action by a company. With subsidies, it is the government or a government agency that acts, either by paying out subsidies directly or by requiring companies to subsidize certain customers. But the WTO is an organization of countries and their governments.

Are export subsidies illegal?

While countries may choose their own import tariff binding level in exchange for con- cessions, export subsidies are completely prohibited, with few exceptions. As a result, import tariffs and export taxes are higher than their efficient levels, and the volume of trade is less than its efficient level.

How can I get export subsidy?

An application can be filed online with the DGFT. Merchandise Exports from India Scheme (MEIS): Under this scheme, exporters of notified goods to notified markets receive transferable duty credit scrips on the realised Free On Board (FOB) value of the export in free foreign exchange at rates of 2% to 7%.

How do export subsidies affect international trade quizlet?

An export subsidy reduces the amount available in the domestic market of the exporting country and increases the amount imported by the foreign country.

What are the four direct effects of a tariff?

The four direct effects of tariffs are: a decline in consumption, increased domestic production, tariff revenue, and a (n) ______. Multiple choice question. What is the main economic difference between a tariff and a quota?

Which of the following subsidies is prohibited under World Trade Organization WTO rules?

A subsidy granted by a WTO member government is prohibited by the Subsidies Agreement if it is contingent, in law or in fact, on export performance, or on the use of domestic over imported goods. These prohibited subsidies are commonly referred to as export subsidies and import substitution subsidies, respectively.


Government policies that restrict international commerce in order to benefit home sectors are referred to as protectionism. Protectionist policies are often undertaken with the objective of increasing economic activity inside a domestic economy, but they can also be enacted to address concerns about safety or quality in the workplace.

Key Takeaways

  • In order to promote the home economy, protectionist policies impose certain limits on foreign commerce. Typically, protectionist policies are implemented in order to increase economic activity
  • However, they may also be implemented in response to safety or quality concerns. Between economists and policymakers, there is an ongoing dispute about the usefulness of protectionism. Tariffs, import quotas, product standards, and subsidies are just a few of the key policy tools that a government might employ in order to adopt protectionist measures.

Understanding Protectionism

Protectionist policies are often focused on imports, but they may also include other areas of international trade, such as product standards and government subsidies, that are not typically considered. The benefits of protectionism are hotly debated, and many people believe that they are. Proponents of free trade say that, in the long run, protectionism typically affects the people and entities it is supposed to protect by reducing economic growth and rising price inflation, making free trade a preferable option.


In order to enforce protectionist measures, governments frequently employ import taxes as one of their primary tactics. When it comes to protective measures, there are three primary import tariff notions that may be postulated. Most import duties are levied against the importing country and documented at the government’s border crossing point. Tariffs on imports increase the cost of importing goods for a country. International trade regulations enforced on an item-by-item basis, boosting the cost of products for importers and forcing them to pass on increased costs to end consumers are referred to as scientific tariffs.

It is necessary to calculate the levels at which import tariff cuts or increases would cause considerable harm to an industry as a whole, perhaps resulting in the threat of closure owing to an inability to compete, while calculating these tariffs.

Import Quotas

A non-tariff barrier that is put in place to limit the amount of items that may be imported during a specific period of time is known as an importquota. It is the goal of quotas to limit the amount of a certain commodity that may be supplied by an exporter to an importer. This is often a less extreme move that has only a minimal effect on pricing and leads to an increase in demand for domestic enterprises to make up for the difference in revenue. Quotas may also be implemented in order to avoid dumping, which happens when foreign firms export their products at a price that is lower than their actual costs of manufacture.

Product Standards

When it comes to establishing product standards, product safety and the vast amount of low-quality items or materials are often the main issues. Product standard protectionism, which restricts imports based on a country’s internal controls, may be a significant obstacle to trade. Some nations may have weaker regulatory requirements in the fields of food preparation, intellectual property enforcement, or the manufacture of raw materials than others. This may result in the necessity of a product standard or the prohibition of particular imports as a result of regulatory enforcement.

Consider, for example, French cheeses made with raw milk rather than pasteurized milk, which must be matured for at least 60 days before being imported into the United States of America.

The fact that many French cheeses are produced in a short period of time (50 days or less) means that some of the most popular French cheeses are prohibited from being imported into the United States, giving an advantage to American cheesemakers.

Government Subsidies

State and federal assistance can take many different forms. Generally speaking, they can be either direct or indirect. Direct subsidies are payments made directly to companies in the form of cash. Indirect subsidies take the form of exceptional savings, such as interest-free loans and tax advantages, that are not available directly to the recipient. When considering subsidies, government authorities may decide to give direct or indirect subsidies in a variety of sectors such as production, employment, taxation, real estate, and other areas of interest.

By expanding their international exports, export subsidies give an incentive for local enterprises to extend their operations worldwide.

Export Incentives

Import and export incentives (also known as export promotion programs) are regulatory, legal, monetary, or tax schemes that are aimed to encourage enterprises to export specific types or quantities of products or services. Exports are items that are manufactured in one nation and then transported to another country for the purpose of sale or trading. Exports are a significant component of the economy of the exporting country, contributing to the gross domestic product of that country. Exports can increase a company’s sales and earnings if the items it exports help to develop new markets or expand existing ones.

See also:  What My Government Subsidy For Health Insurance? (Solution)

Exports also contribute to the development of jobs, as businesses expand and increase their employee bases.

Key Takeaways

  • An export is a thing or product that is manufactured in one country and then sent to another country for the purpose of sale or commerce. Exports contribute to the increase in the gross domestic product of the exporting country, as well as the increase in sales, the creation of jobs, and the expansion into new markets. Export initiatives are programs that governments develop in order to assist businesses in expanding their international sales of goods and services.

Understanding Export Incentives

Known as export incentives, they are a type of economic assistance that governments provide to firms or industries within the national economy to assist them in gaining access to international markets. Export incentives are frequently provided by governments in order to keep domestic products competitive in the global market. Export incentives include a variety of methods such as export subsidies, direct payments, low-cost loans, tax exemptions on profits from exports, and government-sponsored international advertising campaigns.

How Export Incentives Work

Export incentives help to increase the competitiveness of domestic exports by providing a sort of kickback to the exporter. Because the government collects less tax in order to deflate the price of the exported good, the increased competitiveness of the product on the global market ensures that domestic goods have a broader reach in the marketplace. In general, this means that domestic consumers pay a higher price than international customers.

When internal price supports (measures used to keep the price of a good higher than the equilibrium level) result in a surplus of a good, governments may decide to encourage exports of that good. Instead of squandering that valuable resource, governments frequently provide export incentives.

Export Incentives and the World Trade Organization

Because of this level of government engagement, international conflicts may arise, which may ultimately be resolved by the World Trade Organization (WTO). As a general principle, the World Trade Organization outlaws most subsidies, with the exception of those applied by less-developed nations (LDCs). Although export barriers reduce market efficiency, the theory holds that developing nations may be required to preserve certain essential industries in order to achieve economic progress and prosperity in their own countries.

Subsidy Definition

A subsidy is a benefit that is provided to an individual, business, or institution, and is generally provided by the federal government. It can be either direct (as in cash payments) or indirect (as in credit card payments) (such astax breaks). It is customary for a subsidy to be provided in order to relieve some form of burden, and it is frequently deemed to be in the general public’s best interests when it is provided to promote a social good or an economic policy.

Key Takeaways

  • A subsidy is a direct or indirect payment made to individuals or businesses by the government, which is typically in the form of a cash transfer or a targeted tax reduction. Subsidies, according to economic theory, can be used to compensate for market failures and externalities in order to achieve higher economic efficiency. But opponents of subsidies point to difficulties in estimating appropriate subsidies, dealing with unexpected expenses, and avoiding political incentives from making subsidies more costly than they are useful.

Understanding Subsidy

A subsidy is typically some type of payment made to an individual or corporate organization that is receiving it, whether it is delivered directly or indirectly. Subsidies are often regarded as a special sort of financial assistance because they relieve the recipient of an associated burden that had previously been imposed on him or her, or because they encourage a certain conduct by giving financial support. Subsidies have an opportunity cost associated with them. Consider the agricultural subsidies provided during the Great Depression: it had highly apparent impacts, with farmers reporting increased earnings and the hiring of extra staff.

Money from the subsidies had to be deducted from individual income tax returns, and customers were stung a second time when food costs rose at the supermarket.

Types of Subsidies

Subsidies are often used to benefit specific sectors of a country’s economy. If it can alleviate the pressures put on faltering sectors, it can also promote new advances by giving financial assistance for their initiatives. Frequently, these regions are not adequately supported by the operations of the main economy, and they may even be undermined by activity in other economies.

Direct vs. Indirect Subsidies

Direct subsidies are those that entail the direct payment of monies to a specific individual, organization, or industry. They are also known as direct payments. Those that have no preset monetary value or that do not entail real financial outlays are referred to as indirect subsidies. They can include initiatives like as price reductions for essential products and services, which can be funded by the government, among other things. This permits the necessary commodities to be acquired at a lower cost than the current market rate, resulting in savings for individuals who are intended to benefit from the subsidy.

Government Subsidies

The government provides a wide range of subsidies to a wide range of industries. Individual subsidies include welfare payments and unemployment benefits, which are two of the most popular kinds of financial assistance. The purpose of these forms of subsidies is to provide assistance to persons who are experiencing temporary economic hardship. People are encouraged to continue their education via the use of other incentives such as discounted interest rates on student loans and other forms of financial assistance.

These subsidies are intended to reduce the amount of money that people have to pay out of pocket for insurance premiums.

Subsidies to companies are provided to assist a sector that is failing to compete against worldwide competition that has reduced prices to the point where the local firm would be unprofitable without the subsidy.

History has shown that agricultural subsidies, financial institutions subsidies, oil company subsidies, and utility company subsidies have accounted for the great bulk of subsidies in the United States.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Subsidies

Public subsidies are justified on a variety of grounds: some are economic in nature, others are political in nature, and still others derive from socio-economic development theories. In accordance with development theory, certain industries require protection from foreign competition in order to maximize domestic advantage. Technically speaking, a free market economy is one that is devoid of subsidies; the introduction of a subsidy changes a free market economy into a mixed economy. Economics and politicians frequently dispute the advantages of government subsidies, and by extension the extent to which a mixed economy should be allowed to exist in a given country.


Pro-subsidy Economists say that providing subsidies to certain industries is essential for assisting in the support of firms and the employment they produce. The mixed economy is supported by economists who think that subsidies are justified in order to offer the socially optimal level of goods and services, which will lead to economic efficiency as a result of the mixed economy. In modern neoclassical economic models, there are instances in which the real supply of an item or service goes below the theoreticalequilibriumlevel, resulting in an undesired shortage and what economists refer to as a market failure.

  • The subsidy decreases the cost of bringing the item or service to market for the producers who receive it.
  • In other words, according to general equilibrium theory, subsidies are required when a market failure results in an insufficient amount of output in a particular area of the country.
  • Some claim that commodities or services produce what economists refer to as “positive externalities,” which are beneficial to the economy.
  • However, because the third party is not a direct participant in the decision, the activity will only take place to the degree that it directly helps those who are directly engaged, leaving potential societal benefits on the table as a result of this.
  • The inverse of this type of subsidy is the imposition of a charge on activities that generate negative externalities.

This is a common approach that is now being used in China and other South American countries.


Other economists, on the other hand, believe that free market forces should determine whether a company survives or fails. Even if it fails, the resources are redeployed to a more efficient and lucrative application. It is their contention that subsidies to these enterprises just serve to maintain an inefficient allocation of scarce resources. Subsidies are viewed with suspicion by free market economists for a variety of reasons. Many people believe that government subsidies needlessly distort markets, limiting efficient results and diverting resources away from more productive applications and onto less productive ones.

  • Official expenditure on subsidies, according to some critics, is never as successful as government predictions indicate it would be.
  • Another issue, as critics point out, is that the act of subsidizing contributes to the corruption of the democratic process.
  • Companies frequently seek protection from the government in order to protect themselves from competition.
  • Even if a subsidy is introduced with the best of intentions, without any hint of conspiracy or self-interest, it increases the earnings of those who benefit from it, creating an incentive to fight for its continuation long after the necessity or utility of the subsidy has passed.
See also:  How Is An Export Subsidy By A Large Country Different From An Import Quota By A Large Country? (Best solution)

Special Considerations

There are a number of different metrics that may be used to assess the success of government subsidies. Most economists regard a subsidy to be a failure if it does not result in a general improvement in the economy. Policymakers, on the other hand, may still deem it a success if it aids in the achievement of a different goal. Despite the fact that most subsidies are long-term failures in the economic sense, they nonetheless accomplish cultural or political objectives. When it comes to the Great Depression, we may see an illustration of these opposing assessments.

  1. Their policy objective was to keep food prices from dropping further and to safeguard small farmers from being harmed.
  2. However, the economic ramifications were completely different.
  3. Those who did not work in the agricultural business fared badly in terms of absolute economic well-being.
  4. Subventions for renewable (non-oil-based) energy sources totaled more than $60 billion in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) fiscal years 2012 and 2013.
  5. The receiving firms, on the other hand, were unable to generate a profit, and oil prices fell in 2014.

People who directly or indirectly benefit from subsidies tend to be the greatest supporters of them, and the political motivation to “bring home the bacon” to ensure support from special interests is a potent magnet for politicians and policymakers alike to support them.

Wha is the difference between direct and indirect subsidies?

Direct subsidies are those that entail the direct payment of monies to a specific individual, organization, or industry. They are also known as direct payments. Those that have no preset monetary value or that do not entail real financial outlays are referred to as indirect subsidies. These can include efforts like as price reductions for essential products and services, which can be funded by the government in some cases.

What is the position of subsidy advocates?

Subsidies are available in mixed-income societies. Proponents say that providing subsidies to certain industries is critical to assisting in the support of businesses and the employment they generate. They also argue that subsidies are appropriate in order to offer the socially optimal level of goods and services, which will result in greater economic efficiency in the long run.

What is the position of subsidy opponents?

Subsidies are prohibited in a free market economy, at least on a technical level. If a firm survives or fails, opponents of government subsidies believe that market forces should be the determining factor. If it fails, those resources will be redistributed to a more efficient and profitable use in the future. They contend that subsidies unduly distort markets by diverting resources away from more productive applications and onto less productive ones, so preventing efficient outcomes from occurring.

How Do Government Subsidies Help an Industry?

Governmentsubsidieshelp an industry by covering a portion of the cost of producing a good or service by offering tax credits or reimbursements, or by covering a portion of the cost a consumer would pay to purchase a good or service. Tax credits and reimbursements are two types of government subsidies.

Effect of Subsidies on Supply

Governments are attempting to establish subsidies in order to stimulate production and consumption in certain sectors. When government subsidies are provided to suppliers, an industry is able to increase the amount of products and services produced by its manufacturers. Increased overall supply of that item or service results in increased demand for that good or service, which results in a decrease in the overall price of that good or service. Therefore, when the government provides subsidies to the provider, the result is a win-win scenario for both the supplier and for the customer as a whole.

Meanwhile, customers benefit from the product at a lower cost than would otherwise be the case since suppliers do not have to charge outrageous prices in order to break even on the manufacturing costs they incur.

Tax Credits

Government subsidies, which are generally in the form of tax credits, can assist potential customers with the cost of a commodity or service on the consumer side. For example, the move to more renewable sources of energy is a fantastic illustration of this concept. Due to the fact that green economic models are still in their infancy, there is currently little demand for new energy-saving technologies. Government subsidies or tax credits may be used to affect consumer interest in adoption by alleviating the high expense associated with adoption.

This means that consumer-targeted subsidies will not necessarily boost supply since producers will not be motivated or paid to create more as a result of the subsidies.

The purchase of an electric or hybrid car may also be eligible for a tax credit or subsidy in some states, in the same spirit.

This benefits the renewable energy business by allowing more people to acquire the items connected with that industry without having to bear the full financial burden of the industry.

The Bottom Line

Government subsidies may benefit an industry on both the supplier and consumer sides, regardless of which end of the supply chain they are put on first. Governments must either raise taxes or reallocate money from current budgets in order to launch subsidization programs. There is also the idea that incentives in the form of subsidies actually work to the detriment of enterprises’ efforts to minimize their operating expenses. In reality, government intervention in market economics has tangible consequences for both consumers and suppliers alike, whether it be expanding supply through supplier-side subsidies or assisting consumers with high adoption costs through tax credits.

Export subsidy – Wikipedia

It is a government strategy to stimulate the export of products while discouraging the sale of such commodities on the local market. This is accomplished by direct payments, low-cost loans to exporters, tax breaks for exporters, and government-sponsored foreign advertising. As a result of an export subsidy, the price paid by international importers is reduced, resulting in local customers paying more than overseas consumers. Except for LDCs, the World Trade Organization (WTO) forbids the majority of subsidies that are directly connected to the amount of exports.

  • Additionally, export subsidies can be produced when internal price supports, such as a guaranteed minimum price for a commodity, result in greater production than can be consumed domestically in a particular country.
  • Saudi Arabia is a net exporter of wheat, and Japan is a net exporter of rice on a regular basis.
  • Least-developed countries were given until the end of 2018 to eliminate agricultural export subsidies (and until 1 January 2017 in the case of cotton exports), while developed countries agreed to eliminate the vast majority of such subsidies immediately (including cotton export subsidies).
  • Now that salaries in the subsidised industry are higher than elsewhere, other employees are compelled to demand higher pay, which are subsequently reflected in pricing, resulting in inflation across the economy.

In the United States, tightly owned exporters of goods manufactured in the United States may be eligible for a tax reduction through the use of an Interest Charge Domestic International Sales Corporation (IC-DISC).


  • Export Subsidiesby Steven M. Suranovicby
  • International Trade Theory and Policy: Export Subsidiesby Steven M. Suranovicby

OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms

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Click Herefor a list of Acronyms.’, CAPTION, ‘French Equivalent’);” onmouseout=”nd();”>French Equivalent:Subventions � l�exportation
Export subsidies consist of all subsidies on goods and services that become payable to resident producers when the goods leave the economic territory or when the services are delivered to non-resident units; they include direct subsidies on exports, losses of government trading enterprises in respect of trade with non- residents, and subsidies resulting from multiple exchange rates.
Export subsidies are subsidies given to traders to cover the difference between internal market prices and world market prices, such as through the EU export refunds and the US Export Enhancement Program.Export subsidies are now subject to value and volume restrictions under the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture. (Agricultural Policies in OECD Countries: Monitoring and Evaluation 2000: Glossary of Agricultural Policy Terms, OECD).
Statistical Theme:National accountsCreated onTuesday, September 25, 2001Last updated onWednesday, March 5, 2003

Export Credit Insurance

Export credit insurance (ECI) protects a company that exports goods and services against the risk of non-payment by a foreign customer in the event of a dispute. In other words, export credit insurance (ECI) greatly minimizes the payment risks associated with doing business overseas by providing the exporter with conditional assurance that payment will be made if the foreign buyer is unable to make the payments. Exporters can safeguard their overseas receivables against a number of risks that could result in non-payment by foreign purchasers, to put it simply.

Additionally, monetary inconvertibility, expropriation, and changes un import or export rules are covered by ECI.

The Most Important Points

  • Export credit insurance (ECI) enables exporters to provide competitive open account terms to international purchasers while reducing the risk of non-payment of goods. Due to situations beyond their control, even creditworthy customers may be unable to make their payments on time. Increased export sales, increased market share in new and developing markets, and increased competitiveness in the global market are all possible when the risk of non-payment is decreased for exporters. Exporters’ borrowing capacity and financing arrangements improve when their international accounts receivable are insured. In addition, ECI does not provide coverage for physical loss or damage to products transported to the customer, nor does it cover any of the risks that can be covered by other types of insurance such as marine, fire, or casualty insurance.

Characteristics of Export Credit Insurance

Applicability It is recommended to employ open account terms and pre-export working capital finance in combination with this product. Risk Exporters bear the risk of the portion of the loss that is not covered by the policy, and their claims may be refused if they do not adhere to the standards set out in the policy document. Pros The danger of non-payment by international purchasers is reduced, allowing open account terms to be used securely in the worldwide market. Cons In the case of insurance, the cost of getting and sustaining coverage.

Coverage Buyer payment defaults are covered by short-term ECI, which provides 90 to 95 percent protection against commercial and political risks that result in buyer payment defaults.

Medium-term ECI, which offers 85 percent coverage of the net contract value, is typically used to insure significant capital equipment for a period of up to five years in most cases.

The cost of ECI is frequently integrated into the selling price by exporters.

Export Credit Insurance (ECI) policies are available from a variety of private commercial risk insurance companies, as well as the Export-Import Bank of the United States (EXIM), a government agency that assists in financing the export of goods and services from the United States to international markets.

You may simply locate reputable, well-established organizations that provide commercial ECI plans by searching the Internet for them.

Additional information is accessible on the EXIM website, or you may contact 1-800-565-EXIM (3946) for further information. A list of current insurance brokers registered with EXIM is also available. Export Credit Insurance Provided by the Private Sector

  • Premiums are decided on an individual basis depending on risk indicators, and premiums for established and experienced exporters may be decreased. Due to the anticipated increased risk associated with single-buyer policies, the prices of multi-buyer policies are often less than 1 percent of covered sales, but the costs of single-buyer policies are more volatile.
  • There are no limitations on foreign material or military sales
  • There are no restrictions on military sales. Commercial insurance firms are typically able to give credit limits that are flexible and discretionary.

Export Credit Insurance is provided by the Export-Import Bank of China.

  • Customers who are involved in international trade are recommended to consult the Exposure Fee InformationFee Calculators section (which may be found on the Bank’s Web site under the “Apply” part) in order to assess exposure fees (premiums). Coverage is accessible in risky emerging overseas countries where commercial insurers may be unable to operate due to regulatory restrictions.
  • Exporters who choose an EXIM working capital guarantee may be eligible for a 25 percent premium reduction on multi-buyer insurance policies
  • Enhanced support is available for environmentally beneficial exports
  • And a 25 percent premium discount on multi-buyer insurance policies. Moreover, the items must be supplied from the United States and include at least 50 percent United States content. In order to promote military items or acquisitions made by foreign military entities, EXIM is unable to do so. It is possible that export assistance will be blocked or restricted in certain countries due to policy considerations of the United States government (for more information, see the Country Limitation Schedule available on the Bank’s Web site under the “Apply” section).

This article is taken from Chapter 9 of the Trade Finance Guide published by the United States government. Visit theEXIMwebsite for additional information about credit insurance.

AmosWEB is Economics: Encyclonomic WEB*pedia

DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES:Characteristics of the aggregate population that marketers use to segment the market, including age, ethnicity, income, education, gender, and race. Other characteristics include occupation, family size, religion, and social class. These characteristics are the link to buyers’ wants and needs and affect purchasing behavior. By carefully studying population groups marketers develop marketing mixes that maximize customer activity. Visit the GLOSS*arama
A Careful View Of WORKER SAFETYIt was THE most exciting baseball game in the long rivalry between the Shady Valley Primadonnas and the Oak Town Sludge Puppies. Two out, two on, the bottom of the ninth, the home team down by a run, and Harold “Hair Doo” Dueterman – the Primadonnas’ star center fielder – up to bat. What excitement. What drama. Unfortunately Hair Doo hit the ball directly at the Primadonnas’ runner on first. A line shot to the head. The runner was out. He was also unconscious. Game over. That was not the end to the excitement, though. Chucky Calhoun, the peanut vendor, was inadvertently decked by an enthusiastic fan and suffered a number of injuries as he tumbled down some concrete steps. Chucky, who has made repeated complaints to the Primadonnas owner (D. J. Goodluck) about unsafe working conditions, has filed a workers’ compensation claim. What a mess. Too bad Hair Doo just didn’t strike out like he usually does. Tell me more.Visit the PEDestrian’s Guide
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free trade

HomePolitics and the Law Government BankingBusiness When a government does not discriminate against imports or interfere with exports by applying tariffs (on imports) or subsidies, it is referred to as laissez-faire trade policy (to exports). The adoption of a free-trade policy does not always entail that a nation would forego all control and taxes over its imports and exports, as some believe. Essentially, Adam Smith’s claim that the division of labor across countries leads to specialization, greater efficiency, and higher aggregate production is the foundation of the free trade movement in theory.

  • In practice, however, the preservation of local businesses may only be beneficial to a tiny fraction of the people, and it may even be detrimental to the majority of the community as a whole.
  • International relations in the twentieth century: developments in free commerce Throughout 1993 and 1994, Republicans accused Clinton of being naive and vacillating on important issues.
  • Since the middle of the twentieth century, countries have gradually removed tariff barriers and currency limitations that hinder international commerce.
  • These include import restrictions, tariffs, and a variety of other methods of supporting domestic sectors.

What is Customs Duty? Definition of Customs Duty, Customs Duty Meaning

Customs duty is a charge levied on products when they are imported or exported from a country. Specific or ad valorem rates of customs taxes are applied, depending on the value of the items being imported or imported into a country. Customs Valuation (Determination of Value of Imported Goods) Rules, 2007, Rule 3(i), stipulates that the value of imported goods should be the transaction value adjusted in line with the provisions of Rule 10 of the rules. If there is a lack of objective and quantifiable data with regard to the valuation factors, if the valuation conditions are not met, or if Customs authorities have reasonable grounds to doubt the truth or accuracy of the declared value in accordance with Rule 12 of the aforementioned Valuation Rules, 2007, the valuation must be carried out using alternative methods in the following order of precedence: Rule 4 specifies that the comparative value method should be used in comparison with the transaction value of identical goods; Rule 5 specifies that the comparative value method should be used in comparison with the transaction value of similar goods; Rule 7 specifies that the deductive value method should be used in comparison with the transaction value of identical goods; Rule 8 specifies that the computed value method should be used in comparison with the transaction value of similar goods; and Rule 9 specifies that the fallback method should be used in comparison with the transaction value of identical (Rule 9).

Import tariffs are often classified into the following categories: 2.

True Countervailing Duty or additional duty of customs; 4.

Anti-dumping/Safeguard duty; and 5. Additional Customs duty. The collection of customs taxes is primarily motivated by income generation; but, levies may also be applied to defend home industry from international competition. Also see: Excise Duty on Union Goods

Investopedia Flashcards

An acceptable reason to avoid paying a penalty fee for failing to maintain health insurance coverage. If an individual is in a circumstance that makes it difficult for him or her to obtain health insurance, a hardship exemption may be given to him or her. In the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), which was signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010, there is a provision known as the hardship exception. Most people will be obliged to obtain an adequate level of health insurance coverage starting in 2014, known as minimum essential coverage, or they will be charged a fee (called the “individual shared responsibility payment”).

I: It is possible to receive a hardship exemption in 12 of the most common situations: You are a homeless person.

You’ve received a notice from a utility company that your service will be disconnected.

You’ve recently endured the death of a close family member, and you’re feeling sad.

During the prior six-month period, you filed for bankruptcy protection.

You experienced unanticipated increases in essential costs as a result of providing care for a sick, handicapped, or elderly family member.

In the event of a favorable ruling on your eligibility appeals, you may be able to enroll in a qualified health plan (QHP) through the Marketplace, get lower monthly premiums, or receive cost-sharing reductions for a period of time during which you were not enrolled in the QHP.

Individuals who qualify for a hardship exemption can submit an application through the Health Insurance Marketplace.

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